The word “butterfly” in various languages

German Schmetterling
not from schmettern, but schlagen, an old word for “butter”; Middle High German vivalter
Dutch vlinder, vijwouter probably related to German Falter
Danish sommerfugl
Norwegian sommerfugl, fivelde
Swedish fjäril fjärran: “distant”?
Latin papillio also means “tent”, hence also “pavilion”; see also Farsi
French papillon from Latin
Italian farfalla from Latin
Spanish mariposa posar: “to perch” or “rest”, mari- indicates “effeminate”?
Portuguese borboleta borboletear: “to flutter”, borbulhar: “to bubble”?
Russian бабочка (babochka) баба: “peasant woman”, бабушка (babushka): “granny”
Polish motyl cognate with ‘moth’
Slovenian metúlj cognate with ‘moth’. Same in Czech
Croatian leptir from Ancient Greek. cognate with taxonomic term lepidoptera.
Greek πεταλούδα (petalutha)
Romainian fluture apparently from Albanian.
Albanian flutur perhaps cognate with words meaning ‘wing’ or ‘leaf’, or else from Latin, cognate with ‘fluctuate’
Latvian tauriņštaure: “trumpet” ?
Lithuanian drugelis
Scottish dalán-dé “god’s fire”
Irish féileacán
Farsi پروانه(parvâne)
Cherokee ᎧᎹᎹ(ka-ma-ma)
Navajo k’aalógii
Indonesian kupu-kupu
Hawawiian pulelehuaalso means “blown on the air”
Sanskrit भंबीरा (bhaṅbīrī, to run swiftly)
Hindi तितली (titlī)
Hebrew פרפר(parpur)
Arabic فراش(farâsh), from the verb meaning “to spread out”
Inuktitut ᑕᕐᕋᓕᑭᑖᖅ(tarralikitaaq)
Hungarian pillangó from pillog “to blink; twinkle, flicker”
Finnish perhonen perhoné: “fly”?
Turkish kelebek
Korean 나비 (nabi) related to words meaning ‘flutter’.
Chinese 蝴蝶 (hú tíe) The bit on the left side of each character indicates “insect” or “worm”. Each character is sometimes used independently and in combinations with other characters to connote “butterfly”.

See also Butterfly Etymology.

Some info from Wiktionary.